Giving search engine spiders direction with a 301 redirect

Giving search engine spiders direction with a 301 redirect

ScenarioYou are upgrading your web site and as part of the upgrade, it means moving and renaming particular files.


Search engines have indexed your entire site and many pages rank well. By moving and renaming these files, you run the risk of losing a lot of traffic and leaving visitors to your site who follow a search engine link with the dreaded ”Error 404 – File not found”

Strategy 1 – Custom Error Page

You could create a custom error page. The problem with this solution is that:

a) You will lose rankings on the next search engine update as the file will appear to be non-existent. It could be some time before the page in it’s new location or with a new name reappears.

b) Your web site visitors may be frustrated by the fact that they then have to dig through your site to find the desired information.

Strategy 2 – Meta Refresh

A meta refresh can be implemented in the <head> statement of your source code in blank page with the old file name, which then automatically redirects visitors to the new page. Example:

<META HTTP-EQUIV=”refresh” content=”0;URL=”>
<TITLE>Page has moved</TITLE>

Warning: This is a technique often used by spammers to trick search engines and it should be avoided, unless the page is in a section of your site that isn’t spidered.

What the search engine spammers do is to create a page that is optimized for certain keywords and phrases – it usually has no real content. The page is then picked up by some search engines, but when a visitor clicks on the search engine entry, they are redirected to another site, often unrelated.

It’s a despicable trick, but thankfully most search engines have filters to detect this. Using this form of SE deception will see a site eventually banned or penalized by major players such as Google.

Strategy 2 – 301 Redirect

A 301 redirect is the most efficient and spider/visitor friendly strategy around for web sites that are hosted on servers running Apache (check with your hosting service if you aren’t sure). It’s not that hard to implement and it should preserve your search engine rankings for that particular page. If you *have* to change file names or move pages around, it’s the safest option.

A 301 redirect is implemented in your .htaccess file.

What is a .htaccess file?

When a visitor/spider requests a web page via any means, your web server checks for a .htaccess file. The .htaccess file contains specific instructions for certain requests, including security, redirection issues and how to handle certain errors.

What is a 301 redirect?

The code ”301” is interpreted as ”moved permanently”. After the code, the URL of the missing or renamed page is noted, followed by a space, then followed by the new location or file name

How do I implement a 301 redirect?

First of all, you’ll need to download the .htaccess file in the root directory of where all your web pages are stored. If there is no .htaccess file there, you can create one with Notepad or a similar application. Make sure when you name the file that you remember to put the ”.” at the beginning of the file name. This file has no tail extension.

If there is a .htaccess file already in existence with lines of code present, be very careful not to change any existing line unless you are familiar with the functions of the file.

Scroll down past all the existing code, leave a line space, then create a new line that follows this example:

redirect 301 /old/old.htm

It’s as easy as that. Save the file, upload it back into your web and test it out by typing in the old address to the page you’ve changed. You should be instantly and seamlessly transported to the new location.

Notes: Be sure not to add ”http://www” to the first part of the statement – just put the path from the top level of your site to the page. Also ensure that you leave a single space between these elements:

redirect 301 (the instruction that the page has moved)

/old/old.htm (the original folder path and file name) (new path and file name)

A more powerful set of directives for manipulating URLs is contained in the Apache mod_rewrite module, especially useful when changing domain names and/or folder names containing large numbers of files. Read our basic tutorial on the apache mod_rewrite module.

Redirecting entire sites with 301

The 301 directive is quite powerful. You can redirect not just single files but entire sites, for example when changing domain names e.g.

redirect 301 /

The first ”/” indicates that everything from the top level of the site down should be redirected. As long as you are using the same paths and filenames, then this option is a very simple way to perform site redirection in the situation where you have only changed your domain name.

Search engine spiders & 301 redirects

The 301 redirect is the safest way to preserve your rankings. On the next spidering, the search engine robot will obey the rule indicated in your .htaccess file. The search engine spider doesn’t actually read the .htaccess file, but recognizes the response from the server as valid.

In the next update, the old file name and path *should* be dropped and replaced with the new one. Sometimes you may see alternating old/new file names during the transition period, along with some possible fluctuations in rankings as things settle. Don’t panic – this is normal and may take a number of weeks before everything is back to normal; but the bottom line is, any change you make has risks – whether it’s altering page text, moving/renaming pages or changing domain names. Search engines run by their own rules and can change those rules at any time.

If you’re changing domain names and using a 301 redirect, you’ll need to leave the old domain name and files in place for a few weeks to give the major search engines time to catch on to the changes and don’t forget to notify your link partners of the domain name change as soon as possible. Once you deactivate the old domain, any search engine kudos you’ve built up through those links will be gone.
Related learning resources

Moving your web site to another server? Some tips.

Web site file base maintenance

Search engine marketing tutorials & resources